PENGAJARAN KITAB-KITAB FIQIH DI PESANTREN

Husen Hasan Basri

Abstract


Abstract
In addition to clerics and values, yellow books are essential elements of an Islamic boarding school. Yellow Books are Islamic boarding school instructional materials that have been used for a long time. One area of yellow book that has been long taught is jurisprudence (fiqh) field. Teaching of fiqh books starts from the low level books, such as Safinahan-Najah to the high level books, such as Al-Muhadzdzab. Teaching methods used were Bandongan and Sorogan methods. In line with diversified development of forms and types of education in Islamic boarding schools, such as formal education (madrassas and schools) and vocational education, it is expected that teaching of yellow books, including books of fiqh, was changing, either books taught, teaching methods used, number of meetings in teaching, and teaching level. Through a survey of 951 schools in 15 provinces of 72 books of fiqh chosen by the researchers, there were 5 books of 72 books of fiqh included in a group of the most widely taught books of fiqh, namely: Taqrib, Safinah an-Najah, Fath al-Mu’in, Fath al-Qarib, and Sullam at-Taufiq. Besides Fath al-Mu’in, these books are elementary books of fiqh.


Abstrak
Selain Kyai dan tata nilai, kitab kuning me­ru­pa­kan unsur pokok dari sebuah pondok pe­san­tren. Kitab kuning ada­lah bahan ajar pe­san­tren yang sudah lama di­gu­na­kan. Salah satu bidang kitab kuning yang sudah lama diajarkan ada­lah bidang fiqih. Pengajaran kitab-kitab fiqih dimu­lai dari kitab tingkat rendah seperti kitab Safinah an-Najah sampai kitab tinggi seperti kitab al-Muhadzdzab. Metode pengajarannya meng­gu­na­kan metode bandongan dan sorogan. Seiring de­ngan munculnya diversifikasi pengembangan bentuk dan jenis-jenis Pen­di­dik­an di pe­san­tren seperti Pen­di­dik­an formal (madrasah dan sekolah) dan Pen­di­dik­an ke­te­ram­pil­an, diduga pengajaran kitab kuning, termasuk kitab-kitab fiqih, mengalami pe­ru­bah­an pengajaran kitab, baik kitab-kitab yang diajarkan, metode pengajaran yang di­gu­na­kan, jumlah pertemuan da­lam pengajaran, dan tingkat pengajaran. Me­la­lui survei pada 951 pe­san­tren di 15 propinsi ter­ha­dap 72 kitab fiqih hasil pilihan peneliti, terda­pat 5 kitab dari 72 kitab fiqih yang termasuk ke­lom­pok kitab fiqih yang banyak diajarkan, yaitu: Taqrib, Safinah an-Najah, Fath al-Mu’in, Fath al-Qarib, dan Sullam at-Taufiq. Kecuali, Fath al-Mu’in, kitab-kitab ter­se­but me­ru­pa­kan kitab-kitab fiqih elementer.



Keywords


Teaching of Yellow Books; Fiqh Books; Islamic Boarding School; Pengajaran Kitab Kuning; Kitab-Kitab Fiqih; Pe­san­tren.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32729/edukasi.v10i1.148

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