Kiai Sebagai Patron dan Sponsor Praktik Multiliterasi di Pesantren Pada Era Media Digital

Agus Iswanto

Abstract


Abstract

Literacy is no longer single entity; there are several aspects of literacies, especially in the era of information technology and digital media today, so it is called multiliteracies. This article presents the results of research on multiliteracies practice products in the form of Islamic boarding school (pesantren) website. Applying the theoretical framework of the new literacy study approach, this research focuses on the context, patron, or sponsorship of multiliteracy practices, and santri responses through it. Data were collected through textual analysis, interviews, and observations at the Nuris Pesantren in Jember. The results showed that patrons of the pesantren multiliteracies practice that produced website were the kiai and the sons of the kiai. Literacy patrons or sponsors always color the content and cultivation of any web or multiliteracies product. Kiai pesantren holds positions as patron and sponsor of pesantren-based multiliteracy practices in the age of digital media technology. The kiai’s vision and thought have an influence on the practice and products of pesantren multiliteracies. The kiai serves as a model (patron) of literacy as well as a sponsor (supporting element) of multiliteracy practices. The kiai remains a “filter” of values for the santri and the community in the digital era.

 

Abstrak

Literasi kini tidak lagi satu, tetapi beberapa aspek, terlebih di era teknologi informasi dan media digital, sehingga disebut dengan multiliterasi. Tulisan ini menyajikan hasil penelitian tentang produk praktik multiliterasi yang berupa website pondok pesantren. Dengan menerapkan kerangka teoritik pendekatan kajian literasi baru, penelitian ini memfokuskan bahasan pada konteks, patron, atau sponsor yang membentuk produk praktik multiliterasi, serta respon santri terhadap praktik tersebut. Data dikumpulkan dengan telaah dan analisis tekstual, wawancara, dan observasi di Pondok Pesantren Nuris Jember. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa patron atau sponsor praktik multiliterasi pesantren yang menghasilkan produk website adalah kiai dan putra-putra kiai. Patron atau sponsor literasi senantiasa mewarnai konten dan penggarapan website atau produk multiliterasi apapun. Kiai pesantren memegang posisi sebagai patron dan sponsor praktik multiliterasi berbasis pesantren di zaman teknologi media digital. Visi kiai dan pemikirannya memberikan pengaruh pada praktik dan produk literasi/multiliterasi pesantren. Kiai menjadi teladan (patron) literasi sekaligus juga menjadi sponsor (unsur yang mendukung) praktik multiliterasi. Namun, kiai tetap menjadi “penyaring” nilai bagi santri dan masyarakat di tengah revolusi teknologi digital.


Keywords


Kiai; Literacy patron; Literacy sponsor; Multiliteracies; Pesantren; Kiai; Multiliterasi; Pesantren; Patron literasi; Sponsor literasi

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdusshomad, M. (2015) Hujjah NU Akidah-Amaliah-Tradisi. Malang: Pustaka Bayan.

Abdusshomad, M. (2016) Fiqh Tradisionalis: Jawaban Pelbagai Persoalan Keagamaan Sehari-hari. Malang: Pustaka Bayan.

Abidin, Y., Mulyati, T. and Yunansah, H. (2017a) ‘Developing Literacy Learning Model Based On Multi Literacy, Integrated, and Differentiated Concept At Primary School’, Cakrawala Pendidikan, 36(2), pp. 156–166. doi: :https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v36i2.13283.

Abidin, Y., Mulyati, T. and Yunansah, H. (2017b) Pembelajaran Literasi: Strategi Meningkatkan Kemampuan Literasi Matematika, Sains, Membaca, dan Menulis. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Barton, D. and Hamilton, M. (2005) ‘Literacy practices’, in Barton, D., Hamilton, M., and Ivanic, R. (eds) Situated Literacies: Theorising Reading and Writing in Context. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 7–14. doi: 10.4324/9780203984963-10.

Beavis, C., Muspratt, S. and Thompson, R. (2015) ‘“Computer games can get your brain working”: student experience and perceptions of digital games in the classroom’, Learning, Media and Technology, 40(1), pp. 21–42. doi: 10.1080/17439884.2014.904339.

Brandt, D. (2001) Literacy in American Lives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burnett, N. et al. (2006) Education for All: Literacy for Life, UNESCO. Paris: UNESCO.

Chassiakos, Y. R. et al. (2016) ‘Children and adolescents and digital media’, Pediatrics, 138(5). doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2593.

Dewayani, S. (2017) Menghidupkan Literasi di Ruang Kelas. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Dewayani, S. and Retnaningdyah, P. (2017) Suara dari Marjin: Literasi sebagai Praktik Sosial. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya.

Dhofier, Z. (1994) Tradisi Pesantren, VI, Jakarta: LP3ES. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Gazali, E. (2018) ‘Pesantren Di Antara Generasi Alfa Dan Tantangan’, OASIS : Jurnal Ilmiah Kajian Islam, 2(2), pp. 96–109.

Gee, J. P. (2000) ‘The New Literacy Studies: From “Socially Situated” to the Work of the Social’, in Barton, D., Hamilton, M., and Ivanic, R. (eds) Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context. London and New York: Routledge.

Halim, W. (2018) ‘Young Islamic preachers on Facebook: Pesantren As’adiyah and its engagement with social media’, Indonesia and the Malay World, 46(134), pp. 44–60. doi: 10.1080/13639811.2018.1416796.

Jamaludin, M. (2012) ‘Metamorfosis Pesantern Di Era Globalisai’, Journal of Social and Islamic Culture, 20(1), pp. 127–139.

Jewitt, C. (2008) ‘Multimodality and literacy in school classrooms’, Review of Research in Education, 32, pp. 241–267. doi: 10.3102/0091732X07310586.

Lankshear, C. and Knobel, M. (2011) New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning. 3rd edn. New York: Open University Press. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enj039.

Lewis, D. (2004) ‘Children Reading Pictures: Interpreting Visual Texts’, Literacy (formerly Reading), 38(1), pp. 65–66. doi: 10.1111/j.0034-0472.2004.03801011_1.x.

‘Literasi Visual Tokoh Hanoman Bali dengan Pendekatan Augmented Reality’ (2016) Journal Studi Kultural, II(1), pp. 42–47.

Lubis, M. A. et al. (2009) ‘The application of multicultural education and applying ICT on Pesantren in South Sulawesi, Indonesia’, WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, 6(8), pp. 1401–1411.

Lukens-Bull, R. A. (1970) ‘Teaching Morality: Javanese Islamic Education in a Globalizing Era’, Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies. doi: 10.5617/jais.4554.

Lukens-Bull, R. A. (2000) ‘The pesantren tradition: a study of the role of the kyai in the maintenance of the traditional ideology of Islam in Java’, Journal of Asian Studies, 59(4), pp. 1091–1092. Available at: http://e-resources.pnri.go.id:2073/docview/230419029/abstract.

Lukens-Bull, R. A. (2001a) ‘Two Sides of the Same Coin: Modernity and Tradition in Islamic Education in Indonesia’, Anthropology Education Quarterly, 32(3), pp. 350–372. doi: 10.1525/aeq.2001.32.3.350.

Lukens-Bull, R. A. (2001b) ‘Two Sides of the Same Coin: Modernity and Tradition in Islamic Education in Indonesia’, Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 32(3), pp. 350–372. doi: 10.1525/aeq.2001.32.3.350.

Mansyur, M., Rahamma, T. and Fatima, J. M. (2013) ‘Literacy Media Students Success Learning on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) In Junior High School 11 Par’, Jurnal Komunikasi KAREBA, 2(4), pp. 379–385.

Marsh, J. (2011) ‘Young Children’s Literacy Practices in a Virtual World: Establishing an Online Interaction Order’, Reading Research Quarterly, 46(2), pp. 101–118. doi: 10.1598/rrq.46.2.1.

Mastiyah, I. (2018) Pesantren, Iptek, da n Multikulturalisme: Membaca Fenomena Ribuan Santri Berprestasi dan Moderat. Jakarta: UIN Jakarta Press.

Masyhur, F. (2016) ‘The ICT Literacy Development Model for Farmers and Fishermen Community (Model Pengembangan Literasi TIK Masyarakat Tani dan Nelayan)’, Journal Pekommas, 1(1), p. 101. doi: 10.30818/jpkm.2016.2010110.

Mills, K. A. (2010) ‘Shrek Meets Vygotsky: Rethinking Adolescents’ Multimodal Literacy Practices in Schools’, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(1), pp. 35–45. doi: 10.1598/jaal.54.1.4.

Murtadlo, M. (2019) ‘The Development of Scientific Writing Skills in Pesantren: a Comparative Analysis on Ma’Had Aly Sukorejo Situbondo and Ma’Had Aly Manggisan Wonosobo’, Analisa: Journal of Social Science and Religion, 4(02), pp. 205–224. doi: 10.18784/analisa.v4i02.915.

Nasrullah, R. (2017) Media Sosial Pespektif Komunikasi, Budaya, dan Sosioteknologi. Bandung: Simbiosa Rekatama Media.

Pasadas, U. C. (2010) ‘Multiliteracy and social networks in higher education’, Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, 7(2), pp. 16–25. doi: 10.7238/rusc.v7i2.978.

Street, B. (2003) ‘What’s “new” in New Literacy Studies?: Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice’, Current Issues in Comparative Education, 5(2), pp. 77–91. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.026.

Street, B. V (2001) ‘Introduction’, in Street, B. V (ed.) Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspective. New York: Routledge, pp. 21–26. Available at: http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?url=http://www.MONASH.eblib.com.au/EBLWeb/patron?target=patron&extendedid=P_178678_0&.

Susilo, S. V. and Ramdiati, T. (2019) ‘Penerapan Model Multiliterasi Untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Menulis Karangan Persuasi Pada Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia Di Sekolah Dasar’, Jurnal Cakrawala Pendas, 5(1). doi: 10.31949/jcp.v5i1.1199.

The London Group (1996) ‘A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures’, Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), p. 60. doi: 10.17763/haer.66.1.17370n67v22j160u.

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009) Framework for 21st century learning, P21 Partnership for 21st Century Learning. Bangkok. doi: http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/framework_flyer_updated_jan_09_final-1.pdf.

Trumbo, J. (1999) ‘Visual literacy and science communication’, Science Communication, 20(4), pp. 409–425. doi: 10.1177/1075547099020004004.

Unsworth, L. (2002) ‘Changing dimensions of school literacies’, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 6(1).

World Economic Forum (2016) Digital Media and Society Implications in a Hyperconnected Era, World Economic Forum Shaping the Future Implications of Digital Media for Society project report. Available at: http://trends.ifla.org/files/trends/assets/ifla-trend-report-expert_meeting_synthesis_2013-04-26.pdf.

Yanti, M. (2016) ‘Determinan literasi digital mahasiswa: kasus Universitas Sriwijaya [Determinants of students digital literacy: the case of Sriwijaya University]’, Buletin Pos dan Telekomunikasi, 14(2), p. 79. doi: 10.17933/bpostel.2016.140202.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32729/edukasi.v18i3.657

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 Creative Commons License

Indexed by:

           Open Archives Initiative