Religious Teachers’ Quality of Life After More Than a Decade of Reform

Main Article Content

Sulaiman Mappiasse
Nanang Bagus Subekti
Supriadi Supriadi


AbstractThis research examines religious teachers’ quality of life after more than a decade of teacher reform in Indonesia. The research utilizes a survey that involves a total sample of 212 religion teachers. They represent more than one thousand religion teachers teaching at elementary and secondary schools in Manado City, North Sulawesi. While the data collection employs a simple random sampling, the analysis applies a non-parametric procedure so-called the independent Chi-square test. The results of the study show that teacher certification, the most outstanding feature of the education reform in Indonesia, has improved teachers' objective quality of life. Hence this certification, we assume, would have some association with their stress level, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction due to the increasing workloads and changing demands. Such association, however, does not exist. Instead, this study suggests that religious teachers responded to the reform in a neutralized manner, and at the same time, the government and schools failed to create a professional yet challenging environment for them during the reform processes.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kualitas hidup guru agama setelah lebih dari satu dekade proses reformasi guru di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei yang melibatkan sampel sebanyak 212 orang guru agama. Jumlah ini merepresentasikan sekitar seribu lebih guru agama yang ada di sekolah dasar dan menengah di Kota Manado, Sulawesi Utara. Sementara pengumpulan data menggunakan metode sampling acak sederhana, analisa data menempuh prosedur non parametrik, yakni tes Chi kuadrat independen. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa sertifikasi guru, elemen reformasi guru yang paling menonjol, telah meningkatkan kualitas hidup obyektif mereka. Kami berasumsi bahwa sertifikasi ini akan memiliki hubungan dengan tingkat stres, kepuasan kerja dan kepuasan hidup mereka karena adanya peningkatan dan perubahan beban dan tuntutan kerja. Namun demikian, hubungan seperti itu sama sekali tidak muncul. Studi ini, dengan demikian, berpandangan bahwa guru-guru agama telah merespon reformasi tersebut secara netral tanpa beban. Pada saat yang bersamaan, pemerintah dan sekolah gagal menciptakan lingkungan yang profesional sekaligus menantang bagi mereka selama proses reformasi berlangsung. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Mappiasse, S., Subekti, N. B., & Supriadi, S. (2021). Religious Teachers’ Quality of Life After More Than a Decade of Reform. EDUKASI: Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Agama Dan Keagamaan, 19(2), 141–154.
Author Biography

Sulaiman Mappiasse, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Manado

Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Ilmu Keguruan


Acton, R. and Glasgow, P. (2015) ‘Teacher Wellbeing in Neoliberal Contexts: A Review of the Literature’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(8), pp. 99–114. doi: 10.14221/ajte.2015v40n8.6.

Aeka, A., Pinyo, T. and Prapala, W. (2015) ‘Working Life Quality of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University Personnel’, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 6(2), pp. 88–92. Available at:

Ansley, B. M., Houchins, D. and Varjas, K. (2019) ‘Cultivating Positive Work Contexts That Promote Teacher Job Satisfaction and Retention in High-Need Schools’, Journal of Special Education Leadership, 32(1), pp. 3–17.

Berryhill, J., Linney, J. A. and Fromewick, J. (2009) ‘The Effects of Education Accountability on Teachers: Are Policies Too Stress-Provoking for Their Own Good?’, International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 4(5), pp. 1–14. doi: 10.22230/ijepl.2009v4n5a99.

Bjork, C. (2004) ‘Decentralization in Education, Institutional Culture and Teacher Autonomy in Indonesia’, International Review of Education, 50, pp. 245–262. doi: 10.1007/s11159-004-2622-6.

Borman, G. D. and Kimball, S. M. (2005) ‘Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?’, The Elementary School Journal, 106(1), pp. 3–20. doi: 10.1086/496904.

Cavalluzzo, L. C. (2004) Is National Board Certification An Effective Signal of Teacher Quality? Miami, USA: The CNA Corporation.

Chadha, M. and Pandey, N. (2015) ‘A Study of Quality of Life among Government and Non-Government Secondary School Teachers’, Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 6(1), pp. 37–41.

Chang, M. C. et al. (2014) Teacher Reform in Indonesia. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. doi: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9829-6.

Cheung, F. and Lucas, R. E. (2014) ‘Assessing the Validity of Single-Item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples’, Quality of Life Research, 23(10), pp. 2809–2818. doi: 10.1007/s11136-014-0726-4.

Chris, K. (2001) ‘Teacher Stress: Directions for Future’, Educational Review, 53(1), pp. 27–35. doi: 10.1080/0013191012003362.

Collie, R. J. et al. (2015) ‘Teacher Well-Being: Exploring Its Components and a Practice-Oriented Scale’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33(8), pp. 744–756. doi: 10.1177/0734282915587990.

Diener, E. et al. (1985) ‘The Satisfaction With Life Scale’, Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), pp. 71–75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901.

Figlio, D. N. (1997) ‘Teacher Salaries and Teacher Quality’, Economics Letters, 55(2), pp. 267–271. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1765(97)00070-0.

García Torres, D. (2019) ‘Distributed Leadership, Professional Collaboration, and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in U.S. Schools’, Teaching and Teacher Education. Elsevier Ltd, 79, pp. 111–123. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2018.12.001.

Goe, L. (2007) The Link between Teacher Quality and Student Outcomes: A Research Synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Gravetter, F. J. and Wallnau, L. B. (2016) Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. 8th edn. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning.

Hanushek, E. A. (2016) ‘School Human Capital and Teacher Salary Policies’, Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 1(1), pp. 23–40. doi: 10.1108/jpcc-07-2015-0002.

Hanushek, E. A. and Rivkin, S. G. (2007) ‘Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality.’, Future of Children, 17(1), pp. 69–86. Available at:

Hendricks, M. D. (2015) ‘Towards an Optimal Teacher Salary Schedule: Designing Base Salary to Attract and Retain Effective Teachers’, Economics of Education Review. Elsevier Ltd., 47, pp. 143–167. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.05.008.

Imazeki, J. (2005) ‘Teacher Salaries and Teacher Attrition’, Economics of Education Review, 24(4), pp. 431–449. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2004.07.014.

Kaplan, L. S. and Owings, W. A. (2002) ‘The Politics of Teacher Quality: Implications for Principals’, National Association of Secondary School Principals, 86(633), pp. 22–41. doi: 10.1177/019263650208663303.

Kyriacou, C. and Chien, P. Y. (2004) ‘Teacher Stress in Taiwanese Primary Schools’, Journal of Educational Enquiry, 5(2), pp. 86–104.

Lankford, H. and Wyckoff, J. (1997) ‘The Changing Structure of Teacher Compensation, 1970-94’, Economics of Education Review, 16(4), pp. 371–384. doi: 10.1016/s0272-7757(96)00066-0.

Manthei, R. and Gilmore, A. (1996) ‘Teacher Stress in Intermediate Schools’, Educational Research, 38(1), pp. 3–19. doi: 10.1080/0013188960380101.

Martel, J.-P. and Dupuis, G. (2006) ‘Quality of Work Life: Theoretical and Methodological Problems, and Presentation of a New Model and Measuring Instrument’, Social Indicators Research, 77, pp. 333–368. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-5368-4.

Masruroh, F. (2010) ‘Dampak Sertifikasi sebagai Program Peningkatan Profesionalisme Guru terhadap Kesejateraan dan Kinerja Guru (Effect of Cetification as a Program of Professional Improvement on Teachers’ Well-Being and Performance)’, Pregresiva, 4(1). doi: 10.22219/progresiva.v4i1.1809

Metheny, G. A. et al. (2015) ‘Faculty in Faith-Based Institutions: Participation in Decision-Making and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Research on Christian Education, 24, pp. 144–168. doi: 10.1080/10656219.2015.1052165.

Michalos, A. C. (1991) Global Report on Student Well-Being: Life Satisfaction and Happiness (Vol. 1). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Moons, P., Budts, W. and Geest, S. De (2006) ‘Critique on the Conceptualisation of Quality of Life: A Review and Evaluation of Different Conceptual Approaches’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, pp. 891–901. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.03.015.

Olsen, A. A. and Huang, F. L. (2018) ‘Teacher Job Satisfaction by Principal Support and Teacher Cooperation : Results from the Schools and Staffing Survey’, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(11), pp. 1–28. doi: 10.14507/epaa.27.4174.

Pillay, H., Goddard, R. and Wilss, L. (2005) ‘Well-Being, Burnout and Competence: Implications for Teachers’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), pp. 22–333. doi: 10.14221/ajte.2005v30n2.3.

Rahm, T. and Heise, E. (2019) ‘Teaching Happiness to Teachers - Development and Evaluation of a Training in Subjective Well-Being’, Frontiers in Psychology, 10(December), pp. 1–16. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02703.

de Ree, J. et al. (2015) Double for Nothing? Experimental Evidence on the Impact of an Unconditional Teacher Salary Increase on Student Performance in Indonesia, National Bureau of Economic Research. 21806. Cambridge, MA, USA. doi: 10.3386/w21806.

Rowa, K. (2003) The Importance of Teacher Quality as a Key Determinant of Students’ Experiences and Outcomes of Schooling. Victoria, Australia: ACER. Available at:

Saeki, E. et al. (2018) ‘The Influence of Test-based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress’, Psychology in the Schools, 55(4), pp. 391–403. doi: 10.1002/pits.22112.

Senyametor, F. et al. (2019) ‘Relationship Between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Productivity in the Asante Akim South District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana’, Journal of Education and Learning, 8(3), pp. 193–201. doi: 10.5539/jel.v8n3p193.

Simmons, M. et al. (2019) ‘When Educators Come Together to Speak about Well-being: An Invitation to Talk’, Canadian Journal of Education, 42(3), pp. 850–872. Available at:

Skaalvik, E. M. and Skaalvik, S. (2018) ‘Job Demands and Job Resources as Predictors of Teacher Motivation and Well-being’, Social Psychology of Education. Springer Netherlands, 21(5), pp. 1251–1275. doi: 10.1007/s11218-018-9464-8.

Smylie, M. A. (1999) ‘Teacher Stress in a Time of Reform’, in Vandenberghe, R. and Huberman, A. M. (eds) Understanding and Preventing Teacher Burnout: A Sourcebook of International Research and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–84.

Soini, T., Pyhältö, K. and Pietarinen, J. (2010) ‘Pedagogical Well‐being: Reflecting Learning and Well‐Being in Teachers’ Work’, Teachers and Teaching, 16(6), pp. 735–751. doi: 10.1080/13540602.2010.517690.

Veenhoven, R. (2012) ‘Happiness, Also Known as “Life Satisfaction” and “Subjective Well-Being”’, in Land, K. C., Michalos, A. C., and Sirgy, M. J. (eds) Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research. the Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., pp. 1–593. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2421-1.

Zakariya, Y. F., Bjørkestøl, K. and Nilsen, H. K. (2020) ‘Teacher Job Satisfaction across 38 Countries and Economies: An Alignment Optimization Approach to a Cross-cultural Mean Comparison’, International Journal of Educational Research. Elsevier, 101(February), p. 101573. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101573.